There are many aspects of the foot and ankle, from bones, to muscles, to joints, and more! In this article, we are going to outline four of the most important parts of the foot and ankle.

Ankle Joint

The joint between the foot and the lower leg. It allows the foot to dorsiflex (move upward) and plantarflex (move downward). It is made up of the two bones of the lower leg (tibia & fibula) and the ankle bone (talus). There are ligaments that hold the joint together on the inside (deltoid) and outside (lateral ankle ligament complex).

Calcaneus

The heel bone. Two joints are present: the subtalar joint which allows motion with the talus (ankle) bone which allows inversion and eversion of the foot with the leg; and the calcaneocuboid joint has a complicated biomechanical function that controls flexibility of the foot and controls the arch of the foot. The Achilles tendon attaches to the back of the calcaneus, and the plantar fascia also attaches to the bottom of the calcaneus.

Fibula

The most prominent bone on the outer side of the ankle that also extends to the knee. Inflammatory arthritis – Inflammatory arthritis occurs when a disease affecting the patient causes the cartilage to die off. Treatment is dependent on the cause and extent of the arthritis and may entail medication, bracing or surgery.

Talus

The ankle bone. This bone sits within the ankle “Mortise” or hinge which is made up of the two leg bones, the tibia and fibula. Three joints are present: the ankle, which allows the up and down motion of the foot with the leg; the subtalar joint which allows “inversion” and “eversion” of the foot with the leg; and the talonavicular joint which has a complicated biomechanical function that controls flexibility of the foot and the arch of the foot. The talus has no muscular attachments and is mostly covered with cartilage, which makes injuries to the talus difficult to heal.

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